personal opinion and conclusion

Posted on octubre 25th, 2011 in First Paper by andogo

Personally I think that, as people have contributed to feed this monster, the Global Warming, now it is the moment to take actions to try to solve this problem. So we have to do as many actions as we can to reduce this fact. Therefore we can get a better world for our environment: the animals, the plants and the human beings. Furthermore I hope and I guess that many people can think about this problem and everybody starts  fighting against the Global Warming as soon as possible.


Posted on octubre 23rd, 2011 in First Paper by andogo

There is no single solution to global warming, which is primarily a problem of too much heat-trapping carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere.  The technologies and approaches outlined below are all needed to bring down the emissions of these gases by at least 80 percent by mid-century. To see how they are best deployed in each region of the world, use the menu at left.

  • Boosting energy efficiency: The energy used to power, heat, and cool our homes, businesses, and industries is the single largest contributor to global warming. Energy efficiency technologies allow us to use less energy to get the same—or higher—level of production, service, and comfort. This approach has vast potential to save both energy and money, and can be deployed quickly.
  • Greening transportation: The transportation sector’s emissions have increased at a faster rate than any other energy-using sector over the past decade. A variety of solutions are at hand, including improving efficiency (miles per gallon) in all modes of transport, switching to low-carbon fuels, and reducing vehicle miles traveled through smart growth and more efficient mass transportation systems.
  • Revving up renewables: Renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal and bioenergy are available around the world. Multiple studies have shown that renewable energy has the technical potential to meet the vast majority of our energy needs. Renewable technologies can be deployed quickly, are increasingly cost-effective, and create jobs while reducing pollution.
  • Phasing out fossil fuel electricity: Dramatically reducing our use of fossil fuels—especially carbon-intensive coal—is essential to tackle climate change. There are many ways to begin this process. Key action steps include: not building any new coal-burning power plants, initiating a phased shutdown of coal plants starting with the oldest and dirtiest, and capturing and storing carbon emissions from power plants. While it may sound like science fiction, the technology exists to store carbon emissions underground. The technology has not been deployed on a large scale or proven to be safe and permanent, but it has been demonstrated in other contexts such as oil and natural gas recovery. Demonstration projects to test the viability and costs of this technology for power plant emissions are worth pursuing.
  • Managing forests and agriculture: Taken together, tropical deforestation and emissions from agriculture represent nearly 30 percent of the world’s heat-trapping emissions. We can fight global warming by reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and by making our food production practices more sustainable.
  • Exploring nuclear: Because nuclear power results in few global warming emissions, an increased share of nuclear power in the energy mix could help reduce global warming—but nuclear technology poses serious threats to our security and, as the accident at the Fukushima Diaichi plant in Japan illustrates to our health and the environment as well. The question remains: can the safety, proliferation, waste disposal, and cost barriers of nuclear power be overcome?
  • Developing and deploying new low-carbon and zero-carbon technologies: Research into and development of the next generation of low-carbon technologies will be critical to deep mid-century reductions in global emissions. Current research on battery technology, new materials for solar cells, harnessing energy from novel sources like bacteria and algae, and other innovative areas could provide important breakthroughs.
  • Ensuring sustainable development: The countries of the world—from the most to the least developed—vary dramatically in their contributions to the problem of climate change and in their responsibilities and capacities to confront it. A successful global compact on climate change must include financial assistance from richer countries to poorer countries to help make the transition to low-carbon development pathways and to help adapt to the impacts of climate change.

Adapting to changes already underway: As the Climate Hot Map demonstrates, the impacts of a warming world are already being felt by people around the globe. If climate change continues unchecked, these impacts are almost certain to get worse. From sea level rise to heat waves, from extreme weather to disease outbreaks, each unique challenge requires locally-suitable solutions to prepare for and respond to the impacts of global warming. Unfortunately, those who will be hit hardest and first by the impacts of a changing climate are likely to be the poor and vulnerable, especially those in the least developed countries. Developed countries must take a leadership role in providing financial and technical help for adaptation.

Global Warming Will Have Huge Effect on World’s Economy

Posted on octubre 23rd, 2011 in First Paper by andogo

Researchers at MIT have released the results of a study that shows that the increasing levels of ozone that are the result of the ever growing use of fossil fuels will damage to vegetation world wide which will eventually lead to a serious impact on the world economy.

The researchers focused on three environmental changes and how they would effect crops, farm pastures and forests. They are increases in temperature, carbon dioxide and ozone, all of which have been connected to human activity.

The results were mixed, showing that the increased temperature as will as carbon dioxide might actually prove to be a benefit to vegetation, especially in the northern temperate regions. But, the effects from the increases in ozone might more than negate these benefits, mostly on the crops.

There is a possibility that the economic cost can be moderated by incorporating changes in land use as well as by trade in agricultural products and some regions will be able to adapt better than others.

According to their findings, if nothing is done now, by 2100 the value of the world’s crop production will be 10 to 12% less.

In order to compile the results, they used the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model, which is a combination of high tech economic, climate and agricultural computer models that allowed them to predict what the emissions of greenhouse gases ozone will be based on human activity and natural events. They came up with these predictions. If things remain the same and there are no restrictions put on emissions, the estimated carbon dioxide and increases in temperature would acutally benefit vegetation in most parts of the world.but the growth of global fuel combustion will make the average ozone level rise by 50% worldwide by the year 2100. Most of the effect will impact vegetation due to the fact that ozone concentrations will rise above the level where such effects have been seen in plants and ecosystems.

The model predictions indicate that ozone levels tend to be the highest where crops are grown. Also, crops are very sensitive to ozone, one factor in this is because they are fertilized; which makes their pores open up and they suck in more air, the more air they suck in, the more ozone they suck in.

If we do not put emissions controls into effect, the yields from forests and pastures will decline slightly or might even increase, but crop yields will fall by almost 40% worldwide.

These figures do not equate directly to economic losses. According to the model, the world will adapt by allocation more land to crops. But this will not happen without a cost. Using up the additional resources will result in a loss of 10 to 12% of the total value of the crops.

In the different regions, the northern temperate regions usually benefit from climate changes because the higher temperatures will extend the growing season. But still the corp losses from high ozone concentrations will be very significant. In the tropic regions, which are already warm, climate change will not be beneficial, but the crops here will not be so drastic because the emissions of ozone precursors are lower.

In summary, countries in the north temporal region such as the United States, China and all of Europe will need to import food, which would benefit the tropical countries.

The researchers say that these predictions may be too optimistic and they are now including a more realistic climate simulation into their model.

The lead researcher is John M. Reilly, associate director of the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change and the rest of the team is from MIT and the Marine Biological Laboratory. The research was funded by the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Science Foundation, NASA, the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change. (Sourde : MIT

Consequences of Global Warming

Posted on octubre 23rd, 2011 in First Paper by andogo

Most scientists agree that the Earth is in fact experiencing increasing temperatures, and many believe that humans are enhancing this overall warming trend. The likely effects of global warming will not be limited to one country ? or even one continent ? and will permeate almost every aspect of the environment and of life for all living things. Potential effects listed here are just a handful of those discussed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC)

Rising sea levels are the most common concern; taking place with a thermal expansion of the oceans ? a result of water molecules expanding in warmer temperatures, increased precipitation, and the melting of mountain glaciers. Because all bodies of water have varying shapes and ocean water tends to «swell» differently depending on its starting temperature, the change in sea level is not uniform over the surface of the Earth. In the 20th century alone, sea levels rose 0.17 meters predictions for the next century range anywhere from 0.18 to 0.59 meters. While smaller projections would likely have only relatively modest impacts, the higher projections could have dramatic effects on low-lying coastal communities.

Currently, the Arctic summer sea ice is about half as thick as it was in 1950. Just like an ice cube melting in a glass of water, the melting Arctic sea ice does not contribute to sea-level rise, except for the expansion of seawater with increasing heat. However, melting Arctic sea ice may lead to global changes in ocean circulation. Water from melted ice forms a layer at the sea surface that is less dense than the underlying water since it is less salty, potentially preventing the pattern of deep ocean currents from rising to the surface. Additionally, melting sea ice speeds up the warming of the Arctic since water absorbs 80% of sunlight, about the same amount that the cover of sea ice used to reflect.

While the idea of swimming in a warmer ocean is pleasant to most human beings, increasing ocean temperatures could cause serious ecological damage. Approximately one quarter of the world’s coral reefs have died over the last few decades, many of them affected by coral bleaching ? a process directly tied to warming waters which weakens the coral animals.

An increase in global temperature will likely enhance the ability for severe weather, which could mean stronger and more frequent storms. Warmer temperatures cause more evaporation of water, which, as part of the water cycle eventually leads to increased precipitation and further increasing the potential for flooding. While some parts of the world are projected to experience increased precipitation, others may experience higher levels of drought as places that are typically dry ? such as the centers of continents ? experience even more evaporation as global temperatures climb. Scientists, however, are trying to determine whether drought is actually increasing or if we are experiencing a shift in areas of drought.

Warmer winters mean that many deaths related to cold temperatures might be avoided and that the growing season will last longer, a possible upside to global warming. More people around the world die because of winter cold than because of summer heat. A decrease in winter deaths could offset a potential increase in summer heat-related deaths, or even lead to more lives saved as a result of the changed temperatures. With respect to longer growing seasons, there is already evidence in Europe that their growing season has been extended since the 1960s, with spring plants now blooming about 6 days earlier and fall colors coming 5 days later.

With drought affecting some regions and heat intensifying in the tropics, many areas will become unsuitable for agriculture. In tropical areas that are already dry and hot, the ability to harvest food will likely decrease even with small increases in warming. However, warmer temperatures and increased precipitation can also make previously marginal land more suitable for farming. Therefore, it is likely that, with a changing climate, a global change in the agricultural pattern will occur. Yet, it is unknown as to whether or not the increase in the usefulness of marginal lands will counterbalance an increase in drought and desertification.

In addition to potential environmental changes, the human health implications of increased global warming are very concerning. Extreme heat waves in 2003 and 2006 led to thousands of deaths in Europe, North America, and India and are likely to increase. We are also witnessing a renewed spread of diseases, likely to increase if temperatures continue to rise, including a spread of illnesses that were previously limited only to tropical areas.

Other species are also affected by global warming, most often by changes in migration patterns, shorter hibernation times, relocation to new areas, and extinction due to lack of adaptation. For example, many animals accustomed to living in the arctic regions, such as polar bears and penguins, have been forced further out of their native habitat in search of more accommodating habitat closer to the poles. Animals that migrate, such as birds and butterflies, have begun extending their migratory range closer to the poles, arriving sooner and departing later. other consequences.

other consequences.

Consequences of Global Warming On Health

Deadly Heat Wave: More frequent and severe heat waves will result in a greater number of heat-related deaths.

Bad Air, Allergy and Asthma: Global warming could increase smog pollution in some areas and intensify pollen allergies and asthma. Hotter conditions could also aggravate local air quality problems, already afflicting more than 500 million persons.

Infectious Disease and Food and Waterborne Illness Outbreaks: Warming temperatures, alternating periods of drought and deluges, and ecosystem disruption have contributed to more widespread outbreaks of infections like malaria, dengue fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and diarrheal illnesses. People living in poverty will be hardest hit by the global surge in infectious diseases

Dangerous Weather Events: A warmer atmosphere can hold — and dump — more moisture, contributing to more intense extreme weather events, which in turn put people’s lives at risk

Consequences of Global Warming On Weather Patterns

More Powerful and Dangerous Hurricanes: Warmer water in the oceans pumps more energy into tropical storms, making them stronger and potentially more destructive. Even with storms of the same intensity, future hurricanes will cause more damage as higher sea levels exacerbate storm surges, flooding, and erosion.

Drought and Wildfire: Warmer temperatures could increase the probability of drought. Greater evaporation, particularly during summer and fall, could exacerbate drought conditions and increase the risk of wildfires.

Intense Rainstorms: Warmer temperatures increase the energy of the climatic system and can lead to heavier rainfall in some areas. Scientists project that climate change will increase the frequency of heavy rainstorms, putting many communities at risk for devastation from floods.

Consequences of Global Warming On Wildlife

Ecosystem Shifts and Species Die-Off: Increasing global temperatures are expected to disrupt ecosystems, pushing to extinction those species that cannot adapt. The first comprehensive assessment of the extinction risk from global warming found that more than 1 million species could be obliterated by 2050 if the current trajectory continues.

Consequences of Global Warming On Glaciers and Sea Levels

Melting Glaciers, Early Ice Thaw: Rising global temperatures will speed the melting of glaciers and ice caps and cause early ice thaw on rivers and lakes.

Greenhouse Effect

Posted on octubre 23rd, 2011 in First Paper by andogo

The greenhouse effect is when the temperature rises because the sun’s heat and light is trapped in the earth’s atmosphere.  This is like when heat is trapped in a car. On a very hot day, the car gets hotter when it is out in the parking lot.  This is because the heat and light from the sun can get into the car, by going through the windows, but it can’t get back out.  This is what the greenhouse effect does to the earth.  The heat and light can get through the atmosphere, but it can’t get out.  As a result, the temperature rises.

The sun’s heat can get into the car through the windows but is then trapped.  This makes what ever the place might be, a greenhouse, a car, a building, or the earth’s atmosphere, hotter.  This diagram shows the heat coming into a car as visible light (light you can see) and infrared light (heat).  Once the light is inside the car, it is trapped and the heat builds up, just like it does in the earth’s atmosphere.

Sometimes the temperature can change in a way that helps us.  The greenhouse effect makes the earth appropriate for people to live on.  Without it, the earth would be freezing, or on the other hand it would be burning hot.  It would be freezing at night because the sun would be down.  We would not get the sun’s heat and light to make the night somewhat warm.  During the day, especially during the summer, it would be burning because the sun would be up with no atmosphere to filter it, so people, plants, and animals would be exposed to all the light and heat.

Although the greenhouse effect makes the earth able to have people living on it, if there gets to be too many gases, the earth can get unusually warmer, and many plants, animals, and people will die.  They would die because there would be less food (plants like corn, wheat, and other vegetables and fruits).  This would happen because the plants would not be able to take the heat.  This would cause us to have less food to eat, but it would also limit the food that animals have.  With less food, like grass, for the animals that we need to survive (like cows) we would even have less food.  Gradually, people, plants, and animals would all die of hunger.

Video Greenhouse effect

What is global warming?

Posted on octubre 23rd, 2011 in First Paper by andogo

Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere and oceans and its related effects. In the last 100 years, Earth’s average surface temperature increased by about0.8 °C (1.4 °F) with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. ( 1

Glaciers are melting, sea levels are rising, cloud forests are drying, and wildlife is scrambling to keep pace. It’s becoming clear that humans have caused most of the past century’s warming by releasing heat-trapping gases as we power our modern lives. Called greenhouse gases, their levels are higher now than in the last 650,000 years.

We call the result global warming, but it is causing a set of changes to the Earth’s climate, or long-term weather patterns, that varies from place to place. As the Earth spins each day, the new heat swirls with it, picking up moisture over the oceans, rising here, settling there. It’s changing the rhythms of climate that all living things have come to rely upon. ( 2

Global warming is closely linked to the enhanced greenhouse effectwhich is an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere leading to an increase in the amount of infrared or thermal radiation near the surface. Most scientists agree that the enhanced greenhouse effect is leading to rising temperatures, referred to as global warming, and other changes in the atmospheric environment, known as climate change (a term that in common usage also includes natural changes).( 3

It refers to the observed and projected increase in the earth’s average temperature due to natural or anthropogenic climate change. The earth’s average temperature rose about 0.7° Celsius (1.3° Fahrenheit) in the 20th century.  Gases created through human industrial and agricultural practices (primarily carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels and wood, as well as methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons) increase the heat-reflecting potential of the atmosphere, thereby raising the planet’s average temperature.

( 4

Video Global Warming Presentation

Who Will Win the Media Battle of Britain?

Posted on octubre 16th, 2011 in Essays 1-7 by andogo

Particularly I think that as the majority of we to hack  the telephone of celebrities, políticis, members of the royalty and famous of all the fields, can be common, although we know that it is totally immoral. Although many people think that this one is the price that they must pay for being persons known, but this is neither legal nor acceptable. There exist many persons that they likes  know imformaciones and secrets of the famous ones, but I am sure that to nobody would likes this of himself.

All this that before looked funny, normal or even morbid transforms in something stingy and cruel when the hacked telephones belong to victims of the terrorism, victims of crimes or familiars of dead soldiers. And this to which it owes?.

Since this owes to  that the majority of the persons feels identified with these persons, therefore, this action is considered as a violation of the intimacy; for example the people were terrified and infuriated for hacked the telephone of a murdered child. Such  have been the consequences that the prestigious newspaper has seen obligated to close due to the stronggers pressures so much social as on the part of others newspapers of liberal format.

My conclusion about this matter is the same that in most cases in that there exist certain persons who doesn’t understand where are the limits of the legality and often they exceed them without thinks in other persons, Simply they want money (in this case to sell many newspapers), for this motive I will indicate of miserable this behavior and  of so many people without scruples that to obtain money tramples  others.


Posted on octubre 14th, 2011 in Essays 1-7 by andogo

In my opinion I believe that this course us will be of great help to be able to begin in the business world, since, this course provides information about habitual situations in the business world as a can be the telephonic calls, meetings, presentations and negotiations. We are going to start commenting about the section that refers to the telephonic calls in which we will  find different situations as say with whom we want  speak, which  do if the person that we to look for is busy in this moment, if we  called to a  telephone number wrong, to arrange  appointments, how realize reservations and advices  to avoid mistakes.

In the section of the meetings  refers to situations as for example how preparing and beginning meeting, in the part of interruptions that  ask to do for avoid them and as acting in this case, in case of have any type of disagreement with someone as raise it of way politely, questions or phrases to finish the meetings and finally advices to avoid mistakes.

In the section of presentations we will learn how to realize successfully presentations differing each stage and to use phrases of effective way. This section divides in  parts as the opening in which  teach us how  beginning the presentations and effective phrases, then we have the body who indicates that it’s  very interesting to introduce images, graphs or some visual aids method to capture attention of the listeners, also is the section of questions that  speaks of how to open a the floor to questions and how answer these and finally we can see a series of advices to avoid mistakes.

Last section to be about of the negotiations and how we can manage them so that it favors us to obtain the objective. Last section to be about of the negotiations and how we can manage them so that it favors us to obtain the objective. In case of a difficult conversation we observe a few series of phrases to be able to realize them successfully, in the same way we can see how resolve difficulties in the negotiations, which  form it’s  most adapted to ask for an increase of salary, how behavior with the difficult clients and finally advices to avoid mistakes.

To add also that in all these sections we can find examples, very used phrases and practical exercises in which we can apply everything learned


Posted on octubre 13th, 2011 in Essays 1-7 by andogo

My personal opinion about the decision of York University’s along with many other Canadian colleges and universities of doesn’t  pay any type of annual for student about copyright, is understandable and correct. These universities and colleges will manage its author’s own permissions, in order of doesn’t pay any annual.

At the same time  mentioned Universities will take care to inform all its members (teachers, students, sttaf …) of all the steps to follow for avoid any type of plagiarism. Something indispensable will be to mention every original author in each text, task or  article fulfilled, otherwise the own universities will can to take actions and reprisals against every member of the university who doesn’t expire with the established to avoid the plagiarism.

For avoid these reprisals anyone that uses some work of another author will must to contribute a permission of the owner copyright or realize some mention about the author. Personally I understand that these universities after informed correctly all his members take important decisions against those members who doesn’t fulfill obligations of copyright.

When Knowledge Isn’t Written, Does It Still Count?

Posted on octubre 13th, 2011 in Essays 1-7 by andogo

In my opinion I believe that wikipedia he is in an internal debate in which many of the advisers of wikipedia arise the possibility of accompany their texts with something more focus on the new generations as accompany these texts with explanatory videos.

With this initiative what is claimed is that wikipedia could be more accessible to the young  generations who look for information in Internet, and  can think that the  mentioned information not they sera useful, due to the fact that it can looks  poor or ancient on the information hasn’t accompanied by anything more modern and adapted to the current importance as they it are the videos or other methods explanatory updated .

But on the other hand appears the founding and principal writers and  from information to wikipedia that doesn’t like  this offer of eliminate the method up to now used  only accompany the texts withs its literary sources. But this can to give rise to  that not mencioned more sources and wikipedia will not be able to grow.

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